Sunday, February 23, 2020

Reasons and Ideas of Democracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reasons and Ideas of Democracy - Essay Example Democracy in the modern age is best known by the notion, of a people’s governance style. Usually, a government stands at the epitome of authority and is most likely able to govern its people in accordance with its interests, whether good or bad, preferable or not. Democracy, in the ancient times, was first realized among the Greeks in the early century. The word democracy, in Greek, is a two-word meaning â€Å"the people† and â€Å"to rule†, thus can be seen as a rule governed by the people. At the time, the Greek were closer to their people and better at communication than any other country in the world. The monarchical system was viewed as probably the worst to use in governance. In their governance, everybody was involved in making decisions that affected the country. This made them the most civilized nation then. Greek at the time had not embodied democracy maximally as women were still serving as slaves. Fifty years later, this was no longer the case since women slavery was slowly diminishing, thus embracing full democracy. This idea of democracy was later adapted by several countries but hugely by the Romans. Their government was divided into two branches and issues were voted on in order to make sure that democracy was maintained. In the eighteenth century, several ideas had become prevalent. This was especially enhanced by Christianity that teaches that everyone is equal before the eyes of God. This idea of equality became deeply ingrained by the people, and hence a crucial way of determining how decisions were to be handled in government. Some people may view democracy as the best form of governance while others may see it as the worst form of governance. Freedom has been seen as an essential point of governance especially that Democracy is consisted of it. This makes it the best form to use in governance. Democratic nations have people with freer options as compared to those that use autocracy. These rights include voting for the system of power and determining decisions that impact the country. Other include, working as the opposition in criticizing the government and freedom of speech and expression. The representative democracy started when colonialists wanted a fairer system of taxation, thus including representation of people to be able to have a say in the governance of the country. America may not have followed in the Athenian form of democracy but the representative seemed to work really fine, especially in recognizing people’s rights. While in Cairo, president Obama expressed the different forms of democracy within the United States and showed how they may be embraced by other nations in embracing peace. He showed how ideology was recognized for making democracy more effective as a system of governance. The White House, (2009), in the speech that president Obama delivered in Cairo, the president explains how democracy has helped eliminate religious wars and instill peace within his country. He states that the United States, being amongst the most

Friday, February 7, 2020

Cover letters memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cover letters memo - Essay Example First of all I have studied the specific skills sought for by the employers and understood the qualities that will be crucial in the selection process. Then with the important skills in mind I have outlined my specific strengths and experience in a way that answers the recruiters’ needs. I have presented myself as the most suitable candidate for the job by explicitly unpacking my academic qualifications and offering answers to the specific needs required by the advertisements. I have also systematically presented my previous work experience, accomplishments, working history, training, skills and competencies in a manner to provide a solution to the employers’ particular needs. My curriculum resume is also written professionally utilizing standard fonts with enough spaces between points to ease the work of recruiters when reading through. This is because I realize and appreciate the professional standards when it comes to font size, color, type and style when writing any official document. In all my cover letters I have made it my culture to always show the potential employer that I really need the job not for the salary but to offer my contribution. My cover letters outline to the employer how I am an incredible performer on the job, how my personality is a very likable and how easily I am capable of fitting into the team. I thoroughly research before getting down to craft a cover letter to any job and hence my letters are addressed to the right persons, they tell the specific reasons for my interest in the particular organization and make the recruiters understand the much I can go in order to deliver results. I want any potential employer and any recruiter reading my cover letters and resume to see how I am a handy on candidate. I therefore have outlined a summary of my personal strengths such as problem solving skills, ability to work in winning teams, flexibility and desire to always learn new competencies. The

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Global village Essay Example for Free

Global village Essay America was a time of challenging authority and established conventions. It was into this era that a Professor of Media studies at Toronto University rose to media personality status. Marshall Mcluhan is famous for introducing society to catchy aphorisms such as â€Å"the medium is the message†. Although his theories have always been contested, they were popular at the time and are currently enjoying a revival. One such theory is his vision of the â€Å"Global Village† which I will discuss in this essay. To understand the term, a comprehension of some of his other ideas is necessary. Mcluhan was influenced by Harold Adams Innis who suggested that each medium of communication had a time â€Å"bias† which affected the stability of society. In short, he saw that â€Å"time biased† media such as stone carving would endure time and lead to a stable society. â€Å"Space biased† media, such as papyrus, could easily be revised and lead to an unstable culture (Meyrowitz 1985:17). Mcluhan went beyond this to suggest that different media have â€Å"sensory bias† (Postman went beyond this to argue that the medium contains an â€Å"ideological bias†). Mcluhan saw each new media invention as an extension of some human faculty. In The Medium is the Massage he notes, â€Å"All new media are extensions of some human faculty† (Mcluhan and Fiore 1967:26). The book illustrates some examples; the wheel of the foot, the book of the eye, clothing of the skin and electronic circuitry of the central nervous system. In terms of the â€Å"global village† the last extension is the most important. He saw us as breaking our ties with a local society and, through our new electronic extensions, connecting globally to a new world of total involvement. â€Å"We now live in a Global Village†¦a simultaneous happening† (Mcluhan Fiore 1967:63). He refers to the village as a global community, existing with a level of connection associated with small rural settlings. We can see evidence for this in terms of what is sometimes termed an â€Å"always on† culture. News travels instantaneously across the globe, 1 in 6 people own a mobile phone (Guardian 2002) and the Internet smashes old barriers of communication. However, the Internet was in its infancy when Mcluhan used the term, which was first used in response to radio. There is some debate over the origin of the term â€Å"global village†. Eric Mcluhan writes that James Joyce reffered to a similar phrase, as did Wyndham Lewis. His opinion is that his father was probably already developing the concept and found it referenced in Lewis’ work afterwards. Mcluhan’s view of the â€Å"Global Village† was positive. He saw it championing greater social involvement and wrote, â€Å"In an electronic information environment, minority groups can no longer be ignored† This is a technological determinist attitude as it holds the medium as the single key to their involvement. Mcluhan also notes, â€Å"there is absolutely no inevitability as long as there is a willingness to contemplate what is happening† (Mcluhan and Fiore 1967:25). This is rather at odds with some of Mcluhan’s other material. He often makes poetically powerful statements about our helplessness in the face of technology (â€Å"All media work us over completely† (Mcluhan Fiore 1967:26)). Digital TV offers increasing interactivity with Internet functions such as e-mail and online banking available next to greater entertainment choices. It is being put to an alternative use in sheltered housing by allowing residents in difficulty to contact the manager; an example of how new technology is including minority groups. However, with the advent of digital TV the Government has come under pressure to sell the broadcasting spectrum that analogue occupies and is planning to do so before 2010. The effects of this look set to create a greater divide than the one it healed. 50% of homes currently have digital TV but a third of homes are unable to receive digital TV at all. A report by the Department of Trade and Industry found that 6% of the population are likely to object to the switch-off based on the cost of upgrading and the belief that we watch too much TV (The Observer, 2004). If the analogue signal were to be switched off, those who couldn’t (or wouldn’t) receive digital TV would have no access to TV. The gap between rich and poor would accelerate and a greater social divide would exist. Technological Determinists refer to a â€Å"technological revolution† and since the invention of this term there has been concern for those left outside. The issue is more complex than Mcluhan presents it and subject to factors beyond that of just the medium. In Mcluhan’s time the Internet was far from the widespread facility it is today. He died in 1980, but only 5 years later the system to which the phrase â€Å"online community† is most pertinent was operational. Internet forums allow a number of people across the globe to converse in real time. The Internet seems to provide the most convincing argument for the â€Å"global village†. With broadband most actions are instant, allowing the user to converse, transfer money, view information and order products regardless of geography. Mcluhan’s idea of electronic circuitry extending the nervous system is easier to comprehend when you consider someone sitting down at a computer. The physical action of typing becomes the cause, but the effect is realised in an electronic global network. Meyrowitz notes how â€Å"At one time, parents had the ability to discipline a child by sending the child to his or her room-a form of ex-communication from social interaction† (Meyrowitz 1985:Preface). This is no longer the case. The Internet offers the possibility of extending our central nervous system across the globe. It is intrinsic in today’s society and much has been written over its social effects. Wellman and Gulia remark, â€Å"those on either side of this debate assert that the Internet will create either wonderful new forms of community or will destroy communication altogether† (Wellman: â€Å"The Networked Community†). The reality is unlikely to be as clear as this (although Mcluhan’s â€Å"global village† would suggest that it is). Meyrowitz has argued that new media blur the boundaries between public and private behaviour (Meyrowitz 1985:93-114). The same headline in a newspaper and read by a newsreader are two different messages. Print media does not invite the same depth of character analysis that TV does. The public broadcast begins to merge a private situation and invites a personal reading of the presenter. The personal homepage is an explicit example of the blurring between public and private boundaries. People from all walks of life are making available to the connected world their presentation of themselves. Cheung notes how it can be emancipatory as it allows you to rehearse your presentation (Cheung 2000). Unlike face-to-face communication you can refine your presentation until you are content. Mcluhan envisaged the â€Å"global village† as creating a greater level of social involvement and to some extent we can see this happening with the personal homepage. Individuals are reaching out to a global mass audience to say, â€Å"this is me†. Grosswiler notes that Mcluhan â€Å"would have agreed with the idea that electronic media increase the desire for closeness and intimacy in the Global Village† (Grosswiler 1998:118). However there is a problem in defining what we mean by â€Å"closeness and intimacy†. A personal webpage is more personal than the BBC homepage but not as personal as face-to-face communication. Mcluhan would argue that the â€Å"closeness and intimacy† on the personal webpage is the only type that exists as we live in the â€Å"global village†. For Mcluhan there was no other village and intimacy could be with anyone, anywhere. There is a tendency by those who consider the Internet in a technologically determinist way to view it in isolation. The Internet is for most people not the totality of their social interaction, although it is becoming increasing possible to live your life without human contact. It is possible to order almost everything you could need using the Internet, yet town centres still exist. I may talk to friends online but the majority of communication with them will be face-to-face. Mcluhan is often accused of exaggerating his conclusions and this is evident. While the personal webpage is popular it doesn’t provide a substantial system of interaction. It also clear that while a minority of people make friends online, face-to-face interactions comprise the majority. Mcluhan’s famous aphorism â€Å"the medium is the message,† represents the belief that the medium itself has social impact of which the masses are usually considered to be unaware. If the power of the media is so great, how is it that determinists such as Mcluhan can stand outside of it to comment? Furthermore Mcluhan thought that as soon as we are aware of something as environment, a greater process must be in effect (Mcluhan, Eric). However, Mcluhan was considered knowledgeable enough to sit on a board set up to examine â€Å"the totality of communications problems in modern society† (McBride cited in Briggs and Burke 2002:258-260). The outcome of this report would have made interesting reading but unfortunately political conditions halted proceedings. Maybe I would be discussing a different concept if the report had gone ahead. Mcluhan once remarked that the one thing a fish is not aware of is water. The water determines everything the fish does yet the fish is blissfully unaware. The point is that we are the fish and technology our water. However this doesn’t prove the argument, it simply explains it. At first glance the phrase appears clever yet contains no empirical evidence and is typical of Mcluhan’s inventive and persuasive useful of language. Mcluhan’s global village is perceived as optimistic. Yet a Marxist interpretation offered by Ang notes that â€Å"the making of the â€Å"global village† can be rewritten as the transformation, or domestication, of the non-Western Other in the name of capitalist modernity† (Ang 1996:150-180 cited in Grosswiler 1998:142). While the idea of the spread of communication remains constant, it is seen to destroy individual non-western cultures to make way for capitalist exploitation. The sociologist Tom Nairn argues that while Mcluhan’s â€Å"global village† could be reality, it is prevented from being so by the social forms of capitalism† (Nairn 1968:150 cited in Grosswiler 1998:34). He is not denying that it is achievable, but notes, â€Å"The potential of electric media is, in fact, in contradiction with a great deal of the actual social world†. He accuses Mcluhan of creating myths and ignoring the contradictions of his theory. The graphic below compare the distribution of Internet routers and the global population. (Soon-Hyung Yook, Hawoong Jeong, and Albert-Laszlo Barabasi at http://www. cybergeography. org/atlas/geographic. html) It is obvious from the map that the majority of the world is not connected. According to this the â€Å"global village† is made up of a minority of the worlds population. This is a model far from creating greater social involvement and has the potential to create a global divide between the connected and the unconnected. In my introduction I cited a statistic claiming that 1 in 6 people own a mobile phone in support of the â€Å"global village† concept. As with Mcluhan’s aphorisms this initially seems persuasive but closer inspection reveals the truth. The statistic suggests proportionality. As Briggs and Burke explain, â€Å"While there were 600 million telephones in the world in 1982, half the world’s population lived in countries which together had fewer than ten million†. Again this undermines the â€Å"global village† vision and adds empirical weight to Nairn’s criticism that the potential of the media is in contradiction with reality. As with the Internet, the â€Å"global village† is presented here as almost exclusively existing between developed western countries. Mcluhan’s vision dictated that minorities couldn’t fail to be incorporated, yet they have been excluded by virtue of being unconnected. Furthermore the Marxist view upholds that where third-world nations are included, it is only as means of stripping them of identity for capitalist ends. These points considered, it seems that Mcluhan’s vision is not a reality. Much of the world is unconnected and I need cite no evidence that it has not led to world peace. However, it should be noted that Africa is currently leading the way in the realms of mobile phone ownership. It has become the first continent in which the number of mobile phone users exceeds that of landline subscribers. A report â€Å"has estimated that there will be 60 million people using mobile phones by the end of the year more than double the 27 million who have a landline† and mobile phone ownership is growing at an annual rate of 65%, double the global average (Guardian, May 2004). It seems that we may be fast heading toward a â€Å"global village†. However even with Africa’s growth in mobile phone ownership, this still only brings the total to 6% of the population (Guardian, May 2004) and Internet access is considerably lower. While it may be true that a virtual village has been created, it is far from the all-inclusive global vision that Mcluhan prophesised.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Brain Development in Victims of Child Abuse Essay -- Neurobiology of C

Child abuse is a widespread problem in America and beyond. Every year more than 3 million reports of child abuse are made in the United States involving more than 6 million children(1a). For many years, experts believed that the negative effects of child abuse, such as emotional problems, flashbacks to traumatic events, and even learning problems, were psychological phenomena only, able to be cured with therapy. Now, however, beliefs are being changed with the help of tools such as MRI imaging, able to detect actual changes in brain anatomy, and it appears that what doesn't kill you may still permanently weaken you, at least when it comes to child abuse. The chief danger to the brain in child abuse, besides direct injury by the abuser, is the stress placed on fragile, developing tissue. Traumatic stress placed on the brain, such as that caused by abuse, will activate the locus ceruleus, which through a release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine will cause the release of neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, dopamine, and more norepinephrine (2). These neurotransmitters are called catecholamines and are complemented by glucocorticoid stress hormones such as cortisol (2). Stress hormones and neurotransmitters are necessary to the normal function of the brain, and are to some point beneficial, but unusually high levels of these chemicals caused by abuse, especially over an extended period of time, can be very harmful (3). When levels of glucocorticoid hormones are elevated for an extent of several days due to stress, the neurons receiving these hormones begin to be damaged (4). Neurons begin to atrophy and the growth of new neurons is halted (4). If the stress continues for too long, neurons will die (4). This problem is ex... ...II, an article from the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, about the damaging effects of stress hormones on the developing brain http://info.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/plomdevelop/development/January99.html 5)Developmental traumatology part II: brain development, an article detailing a study of the effect of post-traumatic stress disorder upon the brains of abused children http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4S-3WK3RV4-4&_user=400777&_coverDate=05%2F15%2F1999&_rdoc=1&_fmt=full&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%234982%231999%23999549989%2399771!%20AND%20(%23UOI%23B6T4S-3WK3RV4%204)%20&_cdi=4982&_sort=d&_acct=C000018819&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=400777&md5=4e6b134b5ccc9a8bd44fd1a8d05a5eab 6) Teicher, Martin H. "Scars That Won't Heal: The Neurobiology of Child Abuse." Scientific American 286.3 (2002): 68-75

Monday, January 13, 2020

Resistance to change

Livingston 1 Ajax Minerals – Resistance to Change Resistance to change has been renowned as an organizational challenge; however, a comprehensive understanding of the different ways that resistance can be manifested is commonly practiced and highly beneficial to companies. A U. S. mining company, Ajax Minerals realized Just how beneficial it is to understand the components of how changes affect all branches of their company. Ajax Minerals recognized their organization was operating at full capacity and in the next couple years were going to have major competitive threats from another company.If the matters of the future challenges that Ajax Minerals were anticipating weren't addressed and handled appropriately, the organization would be expecting to experience grave danger. What it all boils down to are the issues concerning how Ajax Mineral organization would react regarding resistance of changes that would ensure competitiveness and livelihood for the company. If this subjec t matter about how employees and management adapt to change weren't predicted and then addressed, Ajax Minerals future looked bleak. Ajax Minerals introduced a couple of sources relative to ensure the lively-hood Resistance to change This prevailing viewpoint inherently makes It easy o slip Into an Interpretation of resistance as dysfunctional for organizational learning. This essay contends that this dominant perception Is largely a result of an assumption favoring the management or change agent as rational, and the consequential treatment of resistant behaviors as irrational. The aim of this article, then, is to offer a recapitulation's of resistance beyond the contextual confines of change, and explore its functional roles, particularly in stimulating organizational learning. Firstly, the conceptualizations of resistance and organizational learning will be explored.In particular, due to the aim to explore the fundamental features of resistance beyond the organizational literature and the overwhelming diversity of the conceptualization, this essay will draw on the work of Hollander and Nowhere (2004), who have conducted a comprehensive review and analysis of resistance based on a large number of published work on the topic. Then, Jots and Barber's (2003) pain metaphor and Wick's (2003) assertions on the importance of moments of interruptions will be employed to show how resistance can be seen as a resource that acts to signal that something Is going wrong and needs rectification.It will be further argued that, by triggering awareness and directing attention to a problem, resistance acts to call for evaluation of and reflection on the situation, hence stimulating organizational learning. Finally, recognizing that possible limitations to the functional effects of resistance cannot go unaddressed, the last section discusses several variables that can potentially limit the capacity of resistance In stimulating organizational learning.Therefore, the central argument of this article Is as follows: Re-conceptualizing resistance as a resource rather than as a deficit sheds light on Its national potentials. In view of its fundamental features, resistance does have the potential to stimulate organi zational learning. However, whether or not this translates to reality remains dependent on a wide range of variables surrounding the organization concerned.Conceptualizing Resistance Despite a surge in studies on resistance In the past few decades, resistance remains a theoretically eclectic concept (Numb, 2005). As Hollander and Londoner (2004) claim, the concept of resistance is still unfocused and vague. Due to the lack of a clear and systematic definition, there is little consensus on what constitutes assistance, and the language of resistance has in fact been used in research to describe vastly different phenomena on a range of different dimensions (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004) .In terms of Its dimension and scope, resistance can describe actions occurring at the Individual, collective or Institutional level (Hollander & groups to work conditions to organizational or social structures (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). In addition, resistance can take different directions or goals, and can be aimed at achieving change or curtailing change (Mulling, 1999). Resistance can also manifest in various modes. Among the diverse array of literature on resistance, the most frequently studied mode of resistance is one which involves physical bodies or material objects in acts of resistance (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004).This can refer to formal, collective and overt actions such as protests and formation of unions Capper, 1997, as cited in Hollander & Nowhere, 2004), as well as informal, routine and covert individual actions such as feigning sickness and pilfering (Parkas & Parkas, 2000; Scott, 1985) . Apart from the physical and material mode, resistance can also take place in various other forms. For example, resistance can be accomplished through symbolic behaviors such as silence (Pickering, 2000, as cited in Hollander & Nowhere, 2004) or breaking silence (Hughes et al, 1995, as cited in Hollander & Nowhere, 2004).From their review and analysis of the conception of resistan ce based on published work on resistance in the social sciences, Hollander and Nowhere (2004) proposes a seven part typology of resistance that includes: overt resistance, covert resistance, unwitting resistance, target- defined resistance, externally defined resistance, missed resistance and attempted resistance, each offering in the levels of resistor's intention, target's recognition as resistance, and other observer's (such as a researcher or other third party) recognition as resistance.Among these, overt resistance, one which is intended to be visible and which is readily recognized as resistance by targets and other observers, is the most widely accepted and recognized form of resistance and is the core of the conceptualization of resistance (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). On the other hand, covert resistance, which is conceptually similar to everyday resistance (Scott, 1985) and routine assistance (Parkas & Parkas, 2000) are both intentional and observable, but may not necessari ly be recognized by the target as resistance. These two forms of resistance will form the basis of the conceptualization adopted in this essay.Amid the vast conceptual differences, however, Hollander and Nowhere (2004) identify two core elements that are consistent across all conceptualizations of resistance: action and opposition. Generally accepted as a key component of resistance, action may involve conscious, active and expressive behavior and can emerge either at the verbal, cognitive or physical level (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). In addition, as reflected by some terms commonly used to describe resistance- contradiction, tension, rejection, challenge, disruption and conflict (Albert, 1991; Hollander & Nowhere, 2004), resistance always involves some form of opposition.Bauer (1991), however, draws a distinction between resistance and opposition in his definition of resistance in the context of resistance to change in organizations. According to Bauer (1991), resistance is an exp ression of conflict of interest, values, goals, or means to ends which is unanticipated by the change agent, and which transforms into opposition only after being institutionalized through formal channels of expression. As the overwhelmingly diverse nature of the conception implies, pinning down a definitive conception of resistance in organizations is unfeasible.Therefore, for the purpose of this essay, the notion of resistance will draw on Barber's (1991) definition of resistance This conceptualization will, however, extend beyond Barber's (1991) definition to include acts of opposition such as every day, routine resistance, which may not have been institutionalized through formal channels. Further assumptions are that these acts are visible, observable, and arise from conscious oppositional intentions. In other words, the forms of resistance discussed in this essay will focus on what Hollander and Nowhere (2004) term as overt resistance and covert resistance.To sum up, resistance will be conceptualized as: Unanticipated oppositional action arising from a conflict of interest, values, goals or means of achieving a goal, expressed with conscious oppositional intention and in forms that are observable. Conceptualizing Organizational Learning In a fashion very similar to that of assistance, the concept of organizational learning is still a vastly multi-dimensional, diverse and fragmented area with little convergence despite a proliferation of research since the sass (Wang & Aimed, 2002).Organizational learning, in the simplest sense, refers to a change in organizational knowledge (Schulz, 2002). It involves acquisition of new knowledge (Miller, 1996) by means of added, transformed or reduced knowledge (Schulz, 2002). Essentially a multilevel phenomenon, organizational learning encompasses learning at the individual, group/team and organizational level Cost & Bauer, 2003; Lima, Laughingstock, & Chant, 2006; Marauded, 1995).While it is commonly acknowledged that all learning starts with individual learning, and that individual and group learning have positive effects on organizational learning (Lima et al, 2006), the notion of what really constitutes organizational learning remains excessively broad, diverse and controversial (Wang & Aimed, 2003). This essay adopts the perspective proposed by Baleen (2000) and Jots and Bauer (2003) that learning at the organizational level involves consolidation of knowledge generated from the individual and group level which leads to changes in airmailed procedures within an organization.Formal procedures refer to ‘a set of explicit constraints within which organizational activities unfold' (March, Schulz and Chou, 2000, as cited in Jots and Bauer, 2003, p. 29). As Baleen (2000) notes, organizational learning is a realignment of the organization through reinvention of organizational settings, in which ‘new missions are formulated, new plans and goals are set, structures are redesigned, processe s are reengineering and improved, strategic beliefs are modified, and the operational causal map is altered (p. 92). This conceptualization of learning can also be associated with Argils and Scion's (1996) notion of double-loop learning, the form of learning which occurs when errors are detected and corrected in ways that involve the modification of an organization's underlying norms, policies and objectives. Organizational learning can thus denote phenomena such as changes in formal written rules or employees' collective habits Cost & Bauer, 2003).Resistance and Organizational Learning Resistance in organizations usually emerges in two opposite directions, either for the purpose of existing existing structures or to resisting change initiatives (Mulling, 1999). Yet, the dominant perception of resistance that permeates management wisdom is arguably rooted in studies of the latter. In fact, most studies on resistance to change rest on the widely held and accepted assumption that peop le resist change and this is an issue management has to overcome (Dent & Goldberg, 1999). In addition, change is subordinates (Dent & Goldberg, 1999).This results in a bias that favors the change agent as rational and objective, and treats resistant practices as inappropriate (Dent Goldberg, 1999; Jots & Bauer, 2003), irrational and dysfunctional behavior that has to be overcome if effective and lasting change is to be achieved (Collisions & Cracked, 2006; Ford, Ford, & Diadem's, 2008). Many studies have set out to explore the causes of resistance to change and subsequently offer strategies to overcome resistance (Examples? ). Yet, most do not in fact offer ways to overcome resistance per SE, but instead suggest strategies for preventing or minimizing resistance (Dent & Goldberg, 1999).Rather than offering solutions, these approaches arguably further perpetuate he view that resistance is dysfunctional and should be avoided altogether. This perception carries particularly significant implications for an era in which managing change and learning is seen as the key tasks of organizational leaders (Marauded, 1995), as indirectly prescribes a negative association between resistance and learning. In today's highly turbulent and competitive business environment, the capacity to learn at the organizational level is highly valued and widely regarded as a viable survival strategy (Broadband, McGill, & Beech, 2002; Lima et al. 2006). At the earth of this, then, is the ultimate desired outcome of organizational learning- the flexibility and ability to adapt and cope in rapidly changing environments (Broadband et al. , 2002; Catcher- Greenfield & Ford, 2005). Hence, a key challenge for organizational leaders is to maximize organizational learning in order to develop an organization that has the capacity to recognize, react, enact appropriate responses, and adapt to environmental changes (Alas & Shrill, 2002; Broadband et al. , 2002). Such capacities are inevitably embedded in an organization's knowledge base (Alas & Shrill, 2002).In view of this, the perception that resistance to change is dysfunctional for organizational learning lies in the fact that in the context of change in which employees are expected to learn and adopt new skills or behavior, resistance is seen as a refusal to learn and consequently translated to signify disruption to the change process (Alas & Shrill, 2002). However, looking beyond resistance to change to studies on other kinds of resistance, one can see that resistance can in fact be viewed in a more positive light than in the context of resistance to change.In the context of everyday, routine resistance to existing oracle conditions, for example, studies have found acts of resistance to be strategies that can stimulate structural (Parkas & Parkas, 2000) or even revolutionary (Scott, 1989) change. Therefore, what is needed is an exploration of the issue beyond the confines of perspectives on resistance to change. We should look beyond the context of resistance to organizational change efforts, and explore resistance in a more general sense, based on the fundamental characteristics of various kinds of resistance that typically manifest in organizations, regardless of the goals or directions.In fact, whether aimed at resisting or instigating change, resistance in organizations can manifest in very similar ways, from more overt forms of resistance such protests or more subtle forms of resistance such as foot dragging, false compliance, pilfering, feigned ignorance, slander, intentional carelessness, feigned sickness, absenteeism, sabotage, among others (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004; Mulling, 1999; Parkas & Parkas; 2000, Scott, 1989).Exploring the fundamental phenomenon without the constrictions of a preconception or underlying assumption, which will also enable us to better explore the functionality of resistance in organizations, and how it may, in fact, stimulate organizational learning. Re- conceptualizi ng the Role of Resistance in Organizational Learning Following the preceding proposal, it is necessary to recapitulation resistance not as a dysfunctional phenomenon, but as a resource that, if recognized and utilized appropriately, can produce positive effects for the organization.In fact, some scholars have already suggested that we look beyond overcoming resistance and instead focus on discerning the source of resistance and treat it as a signal that something is going wrong in the organization (Lawrence, 1954; Sense, 1997). Jots and Bauer (2003) further extend this idea with the pain metaphor to show the diagnostic potential of resistance, and proposed a shift of attention from the causes to the effects of resistance. Drawing on a functional analogy to acute pain in the human body system, they suggest that resistance plays the same role within an organization as pain does in the human body.Just like how pain functions as a signal for the body, resistance functions as a feedback loop for management, by means of an alarm signaling that problems exist and should be looked into and acted on to prevent further damage Cost & Bauer, 2003). This is can be further illustrated by a predictable cycle of events that follows the experience of acute pain in the human system. When pain occurs, it shifts attention to the source of pain, enhances the person's body image and self- reflective thinking processes, interrupts present activity and brings it under evaluation, and stimulates a new, altered course of action (Wall, 1979).Jots and Bauer (2003) argue that even though acute pain may initially disrupt and delay ongoing activities, its functions in prompting internal attention, indicating the location and hypes of problem, and stimulating reflection render it an important resource that can be crucial for survival. Transferring the same diagnostic functions of pain to resistance, resistance can be seen as a functional resource for an organization to diagnose and rectify c urrent activities that are potentially damaging Cost & Bauer, 2003).Like a person who is unable to experience pain, an organization that is not capable of detecting resistance, or as Jots and Bauer (2003) label, ‘functional collective pain' (p 1 1), will be disadvantaged through its inability to detect threats to survival. More specifically, when resistance occurs, whether it is aimed at resisting change initiatives or resisting existing (everyday) conditions in the organization, it is an indication that changes are needed.Regardless of the context or situation that triggers resistance, it fundamentally signifies an existence of tension and conflict of interests in the current state of affairs, implying that things are far from ideal and that there are areas that could and should be investigated and rectified. Envisage two distinct approaches to such a situation: one organization disregards signs of assistance or suppresses the acts of resistance while another organization tak es time and effort to diagnose, reflect and identify necessary changes to make.The latter will arguably be better off in the long run because it has had the avenue to identify and rectify its problems, including any possible latent issues or conflicts that had initially caused resistance. In the former organization, however, problems will remain, if not have effects on the organization, regardless of whether it was perceived to be so. Hence, employing Jots and Bauer (2003)g's pain metaphor, it can be argued that in tuitions of pain/resistance, the intuitive tendency is to approach it in ways similar to those suggested in the cycle of events proposed by Wall (1979).In this sense, resistance does not only stimulate reflection, but is itself a resource for reflection. Therefore, as will be discussed later, resistance can be particularly useful in stimulating a specific kind of learning, reflective learning, in organizations. In addition to Jots and Barber's (2003) pain metaphor, an alt ernative way to highlight the potential function of resistance is to understand it within the framework of Heidegger (1962, s cited in Wick, 2003) three modes of engagement.Drawing on these three modes of engagement, Wick (2003) describes three modes of engagement in the organizational context- the ready-to-hand mode, the unready-to-hand mode and the present-at-hand mode, to explore the disconnections between organizational practices and theories, from which he emphasizes the function of the unready-to- hand mode of engagement in bridging the gap between theory and practice. The unready-to-hand mode refers to moments when an ongoing activity is interrupted and when problematic aspects that caused the interruption become salient (Wick, 003).In other words, unready-to-hand mode denotes moments of interruption in organizational processes or activities. According to Wick (2003), such moments interrupt the relevant actors of the organization, prompting them to take efforts to make sense of the interruption. Because a moment of interruption causes partial detachment from the organizational activity and makes the activity more visible, it is an opportunity to get a richer and clearer glimpse of the picture, to reflect, and to gain a better understanding of the issues concerned (Wick, 2003).It is during these moments when relevancies that have previously gone unnoticed can be discovered (Wick, 2003). Therefore, being such a rich resource, the potential illumination that interruptions of organizational activities can offer should not be overlooked. For it's many similar characteristics to moments of interruptions as illustrated by Wick (2003), resistance could be seen in the same light as the unready-to-hand mode of engagement. In many ways, resistance is parallel to a scenario of the unready-to hand mode as resistance is fundamentally a form of interruption to ongoing organizational activities or processes.Therefore, drawing on Wick's (2003) viewpoint and placing resi stance within this framework, we can, again, see resistance as a resource that makes underlying problems visible and allows the organization to reflect and discover issues or problems that would otherwise remain invisible. Both Jots and Bauer (2003) and Wick's (2003) propositions highlight the potential diagnostic function of resistance in stimulating awareness and directing attention to a possibly malfunctioning area within the organization, which inherently links to its function as a useful resource in stimulating reflection and learning.The following section, then, will focus on reflective learning, and illustrate how resistance can function as a resource that stimulates reflective learning at the organizational level. Resistance as a Resource: How resistance cans Stimulate Learning Reflective learning refers to ‘the process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in 1983, p. 99)'. In short, reflection is the key to learning from experience.A key human mechanism for making sense of and learning from experiences (Boyd & False, 1983) affliction has traditionally been seen as an individual phenomenon (Essence & Termed, 2007). Now, however, there is increasing recognition of the rationale of reflection for work at the organizational level (Essence & Termed, 2007). In the organizational context, reflective learning refers to a communal process of reflection of an experience or issue which requires critical examination and reconstruction of meanings (Essence & Termed, 2007).Semester and Termed (2007) argue that this is an important process for organizations because experience is both the dominating feature and resource in work and organizations. Therefore, capitalizing on experience and learning from it is intrinsically linked to the survival of organizations. Yet, reflective learning does not take place voluntarily and naturally. Because of the human tendency to reduce cogni tive dissonance, we tend to adopt strategies to avoid perceiving information that contradicts our perceptions and beliefs (Markus & Cajon, 1985, as cited in Essence & Tamer, 2007).Essence and Tamer (2007) claim that, for this reason, reflection only occurs in dynamic situations and does not generally arise during stagnant situations. In other words, reflection needs to be provoked by uncertain or ambiguous situations in which ‘customary meanings are no longer satisfactory' (Chon, 1983; Rogers, 2001; Wick et al, 2005, as cited in Essence and Tamer, 2007, p. 233). At this point, the logic of bringing in resistance, as an example of such situations is clear, as resistance arguably fits the depiction and shares many parallels with situations of uncertainty and ambiguity.To different extents, all these situations can be seen as forms of unanticipated and undesirable interruptions to ongoing organizational activities which require deeper reflection and understanding. Therefore, in v iew of the nature of resistance and situations that trigger a ‘felt need' for reflection, it can be argued that resistance can in effect function to stimulate reflective learning in organizations. Existing studies showing how resistance leads to change can serve to support the proposition that resistance stimulates organizational learning.While there is a dearth of studies within the organizational literature exploring the direct links between resistance and learning, the relationship can in fact be understood in relation to the connection between resistance and change, as he central aim of organizational learning is the capacity to change in order to cope and survive (Alas & Shrill, 2002). In view of the central aim of organizational learning, some connections with resistance become apparent because dealing with resistance is fundamentally about coping.An organization that is able deal with resistance in a functional way and utilize resistance to its benefits will arguably ha ve a greater capacity to cope and survive in unpredictable situations because ultimately, whether dealing with resistance or with other internal or external predicaments requires the name set of capabilities: the ability to recognize, react and enact appropriate responses. As an example of how resistance can instigate changes, Scott (1989) has reported that routine forms of covert resistance, displayed through actions such as foot-dragging, pilfering, feigned ignorance and sabotage could have revolutionary capacity.In addition, Parkas and Parade's (2000) study of technological change in a health maintenance organization has shown that although informal resistance was effects, resistance, in general, has been observed to produce the following effects: firm the resisters' self identities, rouse renegotiation of roles and relationships, trigger reinterpretation of the dominant managerial discourses, and challenge managerial control, albeit to different extents.The central fact is that resistance Jolted managers and supervisors out of their habitual modes of taking employees for granted' (Parkas & Parkas, 2000, p. 401). While there is no basis to establish a direct link to organizational learning, this example does show an instance where resistance has functioned to stimulate learning by performing the following functions: signaling existence of a problem, stimulating a reflection on the situation, and consequently leading to some form of change.This implicitly illustrates that resistance can play a role in stimulating organizational learning. Limitations However, even though it has hitherto been contended that resistance can function to stimulate organizational learning, one needs to avoid slipping into an idealistic interpretation of the role of resistance and recognize the various limitations that can inhibit its functions. Furthermore, it is crucial to note that while resistance can function to stimulate organizational learning, it by no means imply that resis tance will result in learning.In reality, whether or not resistance leads to positive outcomes, or whether it stimulates learning at all depends chiefly on a wide range of other internal or external factors surrounding the organization in question. Firstly, international in nature, resistance is defined by both the resisters' perceptions of their own behavior, and the targets', or even a third party observer's reactions towards that behavior (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004).Therefore, how resistance is perceived, or whether it is recognized t all, depends largely on the perspectives and interpretations of the relevant actors because the same action may well be perceived differently by different observers. As an example, in their studies of Filipino domestic helpers in Hong Kong, Groves and Change (1999) have reported how the same behavior was perceived as resistance by one researcher (an Asian woman), but perceived as childish and deferent behavior by another researcher (a White man). Th is demonstrates the complexity involved in the recognition of resistance.Even when acts of resistance are intended to be visible and re in fact observable, cultural and social factors, among others, may mean that they may not necessarily be understood as resistance by the target (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). Cultural differences, for instance, may be a particularly relevant variable that could come into play considering the multicultural nature of many contemporary organizations. The possibility that even observable acts of resistance may not be recognized as resistance highlights a key problem: if resistance is not recognized at all, all its potential constructive functions are completely eliminated.For resistance to be functional, it must first be recognized as resistance, and experienced as an unpleasant and undesirable phenomenon. As Jots and Bauer (2003) assert in the metaphor to acute pain, ‘pain needs to be experienced as negative in order to be functional' (p. 1 1). The refore, for resistance to stimulate organizational learning, it has to be first recognized by its target as resistance. Beyond the problem of the perception and recognition of resistance, other complex set of factors can come into play, adding to the complication of the issue.Even when assistance is recognized, further factors could downplay any potential functions of (2005) contend, a wide range of factors exists as ‘disconnects' that widen the gap between ideals and realities. Ultimately, resistance is a deeply sociological phenomenon, encompassing issues such as power and control, equality and differences, social contexts and interactions (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). This, coupled with the complex nature or organizations and organizational learning, unquestionably points to the complexities involved in conceptualizing the relations between resistance and organizational learning.Particularly, constrains to learning can stem from the existing management, organizational cultur e and organizational configurations (Stubbiness, Freed, Shania, & Doer, 2006). Examples of some specific contextual factors within an organization include: power relations, politics and decision-making authority, culture of communication and interaction and level of management control. One key factor that predisposes organizational learning is the structure and culture of an organization. As Evans, Hoodwinks, Rainbow and Union (2006) claim, the wider social structure of an organization can be essential in enabling or preventing learning.Taking horizontal and vertical organizational structures as examples, one can see that resistance is more likely to stimulate and consequently lead to organizational learning in horizontal organizational structures than in vertical organizational structures. Horizontal organizations, with their emphasis on lateral collaborations, permeable boundaries, mutual understanding and effective communication processes (Baleen, 2000; Dent & Goldberg, 1999) ove r centralized control and decision making, have a better capacity to respond effectively to ambiguity and unanticipated situations (Baleen, 2000).This is also inextricably related to the underlying mindset of an organization. As Catcher-Greenfield and Ford (2005) note, the mindset of the relevant organizational actors can have a direct impact on the level of acceptance or denial towards unanticipated, and particularly, undesirable events (Catcher-Greenfield & Ford, 2005) On one end of the continuum is an acceptance of reality, in which the relevant actors, such as supervisors or managers, are able to let go of past perceptions, experiences and comfortable attitudes, to address new realities that have surfaced.On the other end of the momentum is denial, in which the actors' mindsets are rooted in past experiences and perceptions, and do not accept that there are problems with existing ways, and that change is needed (Catcher- Greenfield & Ford, 2005). Hence, the structure and underly ing mindset of an organization can have direct implications on what ensues after resistance has surfaced. Stubbiness et all's (2006) study of a secrecy-based organization in the defense industry serves to show how organizational learning can be impeded by cultural factors within the organization.In the company, which has an internal culture that does not encourage learning and knowledge transfer beyond individual work units, Stubbiness et al (2006) found that social distance, absence of dialogue between top and middle management, the professional and organizational culture of the company that rarely considers the needs of employees, and the secrecy culture that limits information flow, have all proven to be obstacles to collective reflection and learning.Considering the assumption that learning requires collective reflection (Bout, Creases, & Dougherty, 2006), resistance will likely fail to stimulate earning within an organizational culture such as this which does not support exampl e, Campbell (2006) study of learning in a Catholic church shows how learning can be impeded in dogmatic organizations with rigid rules and authoritative power structures. In such an organization, where beliefs, principles and rules are commonly accepted as authoritative and beyond question, inputs from the lower levels of an organization is normally unwelcome.When learning occurs, it is driven by directives from above (Campbell, 2006). It was observed that in such a culture, the top dervish seeks to maintain control of the entire organization by means of protecting the integrity of organizational principles, leaving little space and flexibility for other organizational actors, such as supervisors and middle managers, to respond to the realities facing the organization at large.While the example of a Catholic Church is a somewhat extreme example, it serves to show how organizational culture and power relations can severely limit the functions of resistance. In all likelihood, resista nce may be suppressed or disregarded. In other words, in such organizations here bottom-up changes are highly improbable, resistance will most likely fail to stimulate organizational learning. Conclusion This essay has presented an overview of the conceptualization of resistance and explored the dominant perspective on resistance in relation to organizational learning in current management wisdom.It has been contended that the negative connotation often prescribed to resistance is largely contributed by the prevalent assumption that views resistance as irrational behavior within the context of resistance to change. Drawing on Jots and Barber's pain metaphor and Wick's reposition about moments of interruption, it has been argued that resistance could be recapitulation in a more positive light. Rather than being seen as an obstacle to overcome, resistance can be seen as a functional resource: as a signal that serves to warn and direct attention to a problem.While providing organizatio ns with the opportunity to attend to and rectify a problem before the problem expands or deteriorates, resistance simultaneously serves to stimulate organizational learning by instigating a felt need for reflection and change. The pain metaphor, in particular, implies that when a warning signal emerges, the intuitive reaction is to manage and rectify the problem. Applying this to the organizational context, then, suggests that resistance will naturally lead to an awareness of the need to change.Yet, the relationship between resistance and learning is not a simple and straightforward one. Ultimately, whether or not resistance can function to stimulate learning is dependent upon many variables. The first problem pertains to the issue of recognition. Due to a range of possible reasons such as perceptions and cultural barriers, an intentional act of resistance may not necessarily be recognized as such y its intended targets. If resistance is not acknowledged and recognized, its potentia l function in stimulating organizational learning is completely eliminated.Furthermore, additional factors, such as organizational structure and culture, may also act to limit the functions of resistance in stimulating organizational learning. Therefore, while resistance does have the potential to stimulate organizational learning, whether or not that translates to reality remains dependent on a wide range of factors surrounding the organization concerned. References Alas, R. , & Shrill, S. (2002). Organizational learning and resistance to change in

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Life Of Frederick Douglass And The Life Of A Slave Girl

Jamiya Brooks Comparative Paper November 18, 2014 The Life of Frederick Douglass the Life of a Slave Girl The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass and The Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl are both nineteenth-century narratives about Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs’s experiences born into slavery and as escaped slaves. The concept of gender makes each narrative have distinct perspectives’ of their version of what they endure during slavery and how it shapes their freedom. Even though both narratives have many similarities of educating the complexity of being a vulnerable slave, Harriet Jacobs’ narrative provides more reason that slavery is far worse for women than it is for men. When looking at the viewpoint of slavery, Harriet Jacobs observed slavery different than Frederick Douglass. For example, when Harriet states, â€Å"I was born a slave; but I not ever knew it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  During her childhood, she did not realize that she was a slave. Harriet then goes on to say, â€Å"†¦ I was so fondly shielded that I never dreamed I was a piece of merchandise, trusted to them for safe keeping...† In that quote, Harriet shows that she believed she was untouchable for now because of her family security. On the other hand, Frederick Douglass knew that slavery was existing in his childhood. In Chapter One, he states, â€Å"A want of information concerning my own was a source of unhappiness to me even during childhood.† Frederick was aware of slavery and looked at his captivityShow MoreRelatedLife of a Slave Girl and Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass1524 Words   |  6 Pagesslavery, â€Å"But one of the worst results of being a slave and being forced to do things is that when there is no one to force you any more you find you have almost lost the power of forcing yourself†. One of the most important aspects of anybody’s life and also thought to be the meaning of life is, for everybody to what they want when they want as long as they are not hurting anybody else. A life spent playing by somebody else’s rules is simply a life not worth living. Slavery is one of the most disgustingRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By Frederick Douglass And Harriet Jacobs1208 Words   |  5 PagesFrederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs are both prominent influential authors of the Reform Era. Both writers, who spring forth from similar backgrounds and unimaginable situations, place a spotlight on the peculiar circumstances that surrounded the lives of the African American slaves. After reading and analyzing both Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass; rea ders discover the horrifying truths that belong to the past in connection to slavery.Read MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By Harriet Jacobs And Frederick Douglass1618 Words   |  7 Pagesendeavors, notably most if not all that slaves faced, and constructs a bridge that connects the gap between the readers to the slaves who are subjected to the endeavors and hardships as seen through autobiographies of many former slaves such as Harriet Jacobs’s and Frederick Douglass’s. Jacobs’s â€Å"Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl† and Douglass’s â€Å"Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass† both illustrate great examples of the obstacles and barriers that slaves had to overcome. The protagonists inRead More Dreams in Song of Solomon, Narrative Frederick Douglass, Life of a Slave Girl, and Push2208 Words   |  9 PagesDreams in Song of Solomon, Narrative of Frederick Douglass, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and Push    In 1776 it was stated that our country was based upon one simple truth, That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Though stated with a poetic justice, this statement did not hold true for all U.S. citizens. Many citizens were held in captivity, versus freedomRead More American Dream in Song of Solomon, Narrative Frederick Douglass, Life of a Slave Girl, and Push1924 Words   |  8 PagesAmerican Dream in Song of Solomon, Narrative of Frederick Douglass, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and Push   Ã‚   In an era where knowledge is power, the emphasis on literacy in African American texts is undeniable. Beginning with the first African American literary works, the slave narratives, through the canons more recent successes such as Toni Morrisons Song of Solomon and Sapphires Push, the topic of literacy is almost inextricably connected to freedom and power. A closer investigationRead MoreThe Life of A Slave Girl by Harriet A. Jacobs Essay1272 Words   |  6 PagesA slave narrative is to tell a slaves story and what they have been through. Six thousand former slaves from North America told about their lives during the 18th and 19th centuries. About 150 narratives were published as separate books or articles most slaves were born in the last years of the slave regime or during the Civil War. Some Slaves told about their experiences on plantations, in cities, and on small farms. Slave narratives are one of the only ways that people today know about the wayRead MoreEssay on O ut of the Silence1445 Words   |  6 PagesThe slave narrative genre is an important part of American history. These stories are not only portraits of individual history, but also of American history. By reading the stories of the past we can better determine the path of the future. The personal stories of Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs are two excellent examples of the slave narrative genre in American literature. To be sure, bondage and oppression had a lasting and profound effect on both genders; however, men and women experiencedRead MoreRhetoric Essay1230 Words   |  5 PagesAkinyemi Adebayo Mrs. Crocco AP: English 13 December 2012 Does Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass appeal to pathos, logos, or ethos? The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is an autobiography in which Mr. Douglass tells his life story. He was born into slavery and experienced many harsh realities that shaped his life. Frederick Douglass was a free black man at the time in which he told this story. He is writing to his audience to inform them about slavery. His claim is thatRead MoreJacobs Douglass: An Insight Into The Experience of The American Slave1019 Words   |  5 PagesThe slave narratives of the ante-bellum time period have come across numerous types of themes. Much of the work concentrates on the underlining ideas beneath the stories. In the narratives, fugitives and ex-slaves appealed to the humanity they shared with their readers during these times, men being lynched and marked all over and women being the subject of grueling rapes. The slave narrative of Frederick Douglas and Harriet Jacobs: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl themes come from the existenceRead MoreThe Cruelty Of Masters Toward Slaves1235 Words   |  5 Pagesof Masters toward Slaves During the nineteenth century, masters would mistreat their slaves. Some examples of this misconduct would be whippings, a lack of food, a lack of clothing, and malicious language directed at the slave. The injuries that the slaves would receive could never heal because before the wounds could heal, they would be beaten again. Frederick Douglass, a slave during the 1800s, in his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, he strives to persuade